Archaeologists can write a variety of publications. Here’s the description of a few of them:
Archaeologists need to share their research with the rest of the archaeological community and the easiest way to do this is by publishing an article in a scholarly journal. New studies and hypotheses/theories, reinterpretation of materials, revised translations of historical texts or preliminary site reports can appear as an article in a journal.
Although these reports should come out regularly (preferably after each excavation season), a lot of scholars actually wait several years before publishing anything. The preliminary report or sometimes called the excavation report or site report) simply informs the reader of the work undertaken during the last excavation season. Often rather technical, it is intended for other archaeologists or students in the field. The site report can be published in a scholarly journal (as an article) or, if it is really long, as a book.
This report is published at the end of the excavation project, after the site is closed down. The final report might have theories and hypotheses different from those in the earlier preliminary reports because all the evidence and data collected over the years will have been studied as a whole. These final reports usually take the form of a book and are published after all data have been processed and studied.
Scholars are often asked to write entries related to their expertise for an encyclopedia or a specialised dictionary. These entries can be short descriptions or long essays, depending on whether they are intended for a dictionary or an encyclopedia.
Archaeologists can also write books that are not final excavation reports. Monographs are books about one specific topic, a particular aspect of a certain subject or a new hypothesis base on scientific or historical analysis. Often, you will find many scholars collaborating on a book, each writing a chapter in their field of expertise. Such books are generally very thorough studies of a particular subject and many are intended for the general public.